Industrial robot technology principle
The robot control system is the brain of the robot and is the main factor determining the function and performance of the robot. The main task of industrial robot control technology is to control the position, attitude and trajectory of industrial robots in the workspace, the sequence of operations and the time of action. It has the characteristics of simple programming, software menu operation, friendly human-computer interaction interface, online operation prompts and easy to use.
Key technologies include:
(1) Open modular control system architecture: adopts distributed CPU computer structure, which is divided into robot controller (RC), motion controller (MC), photoelectric isolation I/O control board, sensor processing board and programming Teaching box and so on. The robot controller (RC) and the programming teach pendant communicate via the serial/CAN bus. The main computer of the robot controller (RC) completes the motion planning, interpolation and position servo of the robot, as well as the main control logic, digital I/O, sensor processing and other functions, and the programming teaching box completes the display of information and the input of the keys.
(2) Modular and hierarchical controller software system: The software system is built on the open source-based real-time multitasking operating system Linux, which adopts layered and modular structure design to realize the openness of the software system. The entire controller software system is divided into three levels: hardware driver layer, core layer and application layer. The three levels face different functional requirements, corresponding to different levels of development. Each level in the system consists of several modules with opposite functions. These functional modules cooperate with each other to realize the functions provided by the level.
(3) Fault diagnosis and safety maintenance technology of the robot: Diagnosing the robot fault through various information and performing corresponding maintenance is the key technology to ensure the safety of the robot.
(4) Networked robot controller technology: The application engineering of current robots has evolved from a single robot workstation to a robot production line, and the networking technology of robot controllers has become more and more important. The controller has networking functions of serial port, field bus and Ethernet. It can be used for communication between robot controllers and robot controllers with the host computer, which is convenient for monitoring, diagnosis and management of the robot production line.
Ten applications of industrial robot technology
1. Automobile manufacturing
In China, 50% of industrial robots are used in the automotive industry, of which more than 50% are welding robots; in developed countries, automotive industry robots account for more than 53% of total robots. According to statistics, the world's major automobile manufacturers have an annual output of more than 10 robots per 10,000 cars. With the continuous development and perfection of robot technology, industrial robots will definitely promote the development of the automobile manufacturing industry. While China is moving from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing powerhouse, it needs to improve processing methods, improve product quality, and increase corporate competitiveness. All this indicates that the development prospects of robots are huge.
Case: Before the introduction of robots, China Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd., a worker can only look after two machine tools, after the introduction of industrial robots, a robot can automatically control 5-10 machining centers. From 2005 to 2011, the annual output of China's heavy trucks increased from more than 40,000 to 150,000, while the fixed employees only increased by about 10%. The increase in the number of dispatched workers was also limited. The introduction of robots.
In addition, in 2008, China National Heavy Duty Truck introduced industrial robots when constructing new workshops, and built a fully automatic punching machine. The mechanical arm sent the steel plate into the punching machine, which not only stabilized the product quality, but also replaced the labor, avoiding industrial accidents. happened.
2, electrical and electronic industry
Electronic ICs, chip components, and industrial robots are commonly used in these fields. At present, the most industrial robots installed in the world's industrial industry are SCARA four-axis robots. The second place is a series articulated vertical 6-axis robot. Luo Baihui pointed out that these two industrial robots, which account for more than half of the installed base of global industrial robots, are the focus of our attention.
In the field of mobile phone production, visual robots, such as sorting and packing, tear film systems, laser plastic welding, high-speed four-axis palletizing robots, etc. are suitable for the application of automation systems for touch screen inspection, scrubbing, filming and other processes.
The robots in the special area are specially made by domestic manufacturers according to the needs of the electronic production industry. The miniaturization and simplification characteristics enable high-precision and high-efficiency production of electronic assembly, which meets the increasingly refined requirements of electronic assembly processing equipment, and the automation processing is more Is to greatly improve production efficiency. According to relevant data, the product can be improved from 87% to 93% by robot polishing, so whether it is a "bob" or a higher-end robot, the production efficiency will be greatly improved after being put into use.
3. Rubber and plastics industry
The plastics industry has a close cooperation and a high degree of specialization: the production, processing and mechanical manufacturing of plastics are closely linked. Even in the future, this industry will be an important economic sector and ensure a large number of jobs. Because plastic is almost everywhere: from the automotive and electronics industries to the consumer goods and food industries. Mechanical manufacturing plays a vital role as a process technology for production and processing. The raw materials are processed into injection molding machines and tools into innovative, fine and durable finished or semi-finished products – through the use of automated solutions, the production process is more efficient and economical.
To be in the plastics industry, it is necessary to meet extremely strict standards. This is of course no problem for the robot. Not only is it best suited for producing tools under clean room environmental standards, but it can also be used for high-intensity operations beside the injection molding machine. Even in a high-standard production environment, it will reliably improve the economics of various processes. Because the robot has mastered a series of operations, pick and place and finishing operations.
With its versatile qualities, robots are fast, efficient and flexible. It is durable and can withstand the heaviest loads. This will optimally meet the growing demands of quality and productivity and ensure that companies have a decisive competitive advantage in future market competition.
4. Foundry industry
Multi-shift operations in extreme work environments—the job in the casting field places a heavy burden on workers and machines. Another reason for creating a strong KUKA casting robot specifically for very heavy loads: high pollution, high temperatures or harsh external environments. The easy-to-use control system and dedicated software package make the robot's application very flexible – whether it is used directly in the injection molding machine, for connecting two processes, or for transporting extremely heavy workpieces. Because of its excellent positioning performance, high bearing capacity and the ability to safely and reliably perform high-intensity operations.
With its modular design, flexible control system and dedicated application software, the robot can meet the highest demands of the entire automation application in the foundry industry. It is not only waterproof, but also resistant to dirt and heat.
It can even be used to remove workpieces directly, inside and above the injection molding machine. In addition, it reliably connects the process unit to the production unit. In addition, robots perform exceptionally well in finishing operations such as deburring, grinding or drilling, and for quality inspection.
5. Food industry
Robots are used more and more widely, and even in many traditional industrial fields, people are trying to make robots work instead of humans, as is the case in the food industry. At present, the food industry robots that have been developed include canned robots, automatic lunch robots and cutting beef robots.
From the point of view of the imaginary robot, the problem of cutting the front half of the cow is not a simple problem. The details to be considered are particularly complicated, because from the body structure of the cow, although the body of each cow is roughly the same, there are still A lot of different places. The robotic system must choose the best cutting method for each cow to minimize the waste of beef. In fact, in order to make the robot system skillfully simulate the movement of a purely slaughtering worker, the final solution will be to integrate several high-tech technologies such as sensor technology, artificial intelligence and robot manufacturing, so that the robot system can automatically conform to the product processing. Various changes.
The robot for cutting beef compares the limbs of the cattle to be processed with the cutting information of the limbs of the previous cattle stored in the database to process each cow, so that the starting point of the knife can be determined along the direction of the initial route of each knife cutting. The end point, then use a robot to drive the knife into the body of the cow. The sensor system monitors the amount of force used to cut the bone to determine if the knife is cutting the bone and feeds the information back to the robot control system to control the blade to move only along the contour of the bone to avoid damage to the blade.
6. Chemical industry
The chemical industry is one of the main application areas of industrial robots. At present, the main clean robots and their automation equipment used in the chemical industry include atmospheric manipulators, vacuum manipulators, clean coating manipulators, clean AGV, RGV and clean logistics automatic transmission systems. Many modern industrial products require precision, miniaturization, high purity, high quality and high reliability. A clean environment is required in the production of products. The level of cleanliness directly affects the yield of products. Clean technology is based on products. The control requirements, control methods, and control facilities for the production of pollutants in clean production environments are increasingly rigorous and evolving. Therefore, in the chemical industry, as more chemical production occasions in the future have higher requirements for environmental cleanliness, clean robots will be further utilized, so it has a broad market space.
Synthetic rubber automated palletizing robots are used in Qilu Petrochemical Rubber Factory. For a long time, the factory has adopted manual palletizing, which not only consumes a lot of manpower, but also has labor intensity. This robotic packer can complete 600 packs of synthetic rubber per hour, with a maximum record of 3 minutes. It can complete the operation of various types of international standard containers, saving labor costs of 480,000 yuan per year and achieving re-use of container systems, reducing the cost of public works construction and plastic degradation of packaging bags.
7, the glass industry
Whether hollow glass, flat glass, tubular glass or fiberglass – modern, mineral-containing high-tech materials are a very important part of the electronics and communications, chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. And today it is also indispensable for the construction industry and other industrial branches. Especially for glass with very high cleanliness, industrial robots are the best choice.
Clean glass handling system. The hands are coordinated to clean the handling robot, and the working environment is 10,000 clean. The robot includes five degrees of freedom of X1, X2, Z1, Z2 and R. It is driven by a servo motor and features high speed, fast response and high repeatability.
In the X direction, the X1 axis and the X2 axis share a pair of guide rails for alternate coordinated motion, wherein the Z1 axis end has a rotation axis R. The end of the robot has an end picker for picking up the workpiece. The RB35J can be used in industries such as glass manufacturing and flat panel display (FPD) where two robots are alternately transported and palletized.
8, household appliances industry
The demand for economy and productivity in the field of large equipment for white goods is also increasing. Reducing process costs and increasing production efficiency have become a top priority, and automation solutions can optimize the production of household appliances. Whether it's mass production of washing machine drums or glazing bathtubs – robots can be used to produce, process, transport, measure and inspect more cost-effectively. It can continuously and reliably complete production tasks without the need to frequently transfer heavy components. This ensures smooth flow of material in the production line – and always maintains a constant high quality.
The reasons are manifold: because of its highest productivity, repeatability, high reliability, high reliability and optical and tactile performance, robots can be applied to almost all aspects of the home appliance manufacturing process.
9, metallurgical industry
Whether it is light metal, colored metals, precious metals, special metals, or steel-metal industries, it is inseparable from foundries and steel/metal processing. And without automation and multiple shifts, there is no way to ensure the economics and competitiveness of production and to alleviate the heavy workload of employees.
The main working areas of industrial robots in the metallurgical industry include drilling, milling or cutting, as well as bending and stamping processes. It also shortens the duty cycle of welding, installation, loading and unloading processes and increases productivity.
Even in the field of casting, KUKA robots equipped with special casting equipment show their extraordinary strength, which has the advantages of long service life, high temperature resistance, waterproof and dustproof. In addition, KUKA robots can independently perform surface inspection and other inspection tasks, thus making an important contribution to efficient quality management.
10. Tobacco industry
The application of industrial robots in China's tobacco industry appeared in the mid-1990s. Yuxi Cigarette Factory used industrial robots to carry out palletizing operations on its finished cigarettes, and used AGV (self-propelled trolleys) to transport finished pallets, saving a lot of manpower and reducing cigarette damage. , improved the level of automation.
The application of industrial robots in the tobacco industry China's tobacco industry has continuously strengthened technological transformation and promoted technological progress over the years. The production equipment of key cigarette enterprises has reached the international level in the early 1990s.
However, advanced production equipment must be equipped with corresponding management methods and logistics support systems, in order to truly bring into play the high efficiency of equipment, such as the distribution of cigarette raw materials and auxiliary materials, the need for advanced automated logistics systems to complete, traditional manual management, Manual handling is extremely error-prone and untimely, and can no longer meet the needs of production development. Precision industrial robots are used in this field.