What components are artificial intelligence robots made up of?

- Sep 16, 2019-

The shape and size of each artificial intelligence robot are different. What is the extent to which an object related to electronics and mechanics needs to be an artificial intelligence robot? What are the components of an artificial intelligence robot? This is still widely debated in the industry. Robots all seem to need to be able to move, and also need some sensors and some form of intelligence.


From an anatomical point of view, the components of the robot usually include the following five parts: control center, power supply, sensor, action and feedback, and fuselage.


1. Control center


Some robots have separate control centers from robots, such as robots that require people to control them via a remote control or gamepad. In such robots, a simpler chip is only responsible for controlling a single component (such as a leg or an arm). The chip doesn't know what the rest of the fuselage is doing.


For the robot's control center, the best choice is the microcontroller chip. Microcontrollers are very similar to microprocessors, and they all appear on personal computers. The difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor is that the former is more like a complete microcomputer integrated into a chip.


The microcontroller's memory and storage space are relatively small, both of which are directly embedded in the chip. The microprocessor of the personal computer connects the pins to the high speed memory, and the microcontroller has many different kinds of input and output pins. These pins can be connected directly to sensors, buttons and other bizarre components.


As a buried hero, microcontrollers are everywhere around us, but few people know about them. Microcontrollers are widely used in automobiles, household washing machines, dryers, video recorders, and other household appliances. The multi-billion dollar market for microcontrollers has made them cheap and plentiful.


2, power and power supply correction


Although robots powered by gas-burning engines and pneumatic solenoids can be made, to some extent, almost every robot contains some of the necessary electronic components. The power supply includes an original power supply, a correction circuit that makes the power supply more stable and processes it, and a switch that turns the power on and off.


1, the power supply


Except in extreme cases, the robots produced by the makers are powered by common batteries. The batteries sold in the market are very safe, inexpensive, adequate in supply, reliable in performance and standardized. Therefore, many small makers use a 9V battery.


If possible, solar cells are also a good choice. Since light energy is not always available, low-level solar-powered robots will continue to operate during the cycle of charging and discharging, with a power outage between the sudden points of action. More complex solar-powered robots charge the battery during optimal lighting conditions, so that the battery can still power the robotic control center under poor lighting conditions.


2, power supply correction


Most robots have a small body that is responsible for providing a specific, stable, usable power to the electronics of the entire robot. This part is called power correction.


When the battery is running out of power, the power provided by the battery will become smaller and smaller. If the power provided by the battery is unstable, it will cause the robot to advance at different speeds, and the brightness of the light and the reading on the sensor will vary depending on the age of the battery.


Another reason to use power calibration is that some components in the robot require more power than others. For example, a motor requires more power than a logic chip or a flashing light circuit. The power calibration module will step down or vice versa to increase the power of the battery to the power range required for each major component.


3, the power switch


Most robots have a power switch that allows the robot to be powered down for maintenance or storage. And some smart robots that need to work during the day can install solar-powered batteries without installing a power switch. Such a robot starts running along with the appearance of the morning sun, and then stays in shape throughout the day.


3, sensor


Biologists say that there are more sensors in a wrinkle in a human face than in any robot. Most home-made robots may end up with less than 12 sensors.


- Complex self-made robots can have infrared detection, touch switches, brightness sensors, battery tests, tilt switches and temperature detectors. Despite the limited input of the robot, it can still perform very complex tasks.


Most robots usually have several buttons for user input. These buttons can cause a change in mode or trigger the start of an experimental sequence. Of course, good robots can use these buttons without or with less. When you want to direct the robot to work, you can use the language instead of the button to let the robot recognize your needs. I think, only this can better reflect the intelligent robot. intelligent.


4. Action and feedback


The robot's actions are consistent with the processing of the sensor information. In most cases, the action is done in the form of a move. However, sound, display, indicator lights, and other forms of feedback are also actions that are often used to trigger user action.


1, mobile


Most home robots simply move through a pair of wheels. Unlike the car's four wheels and one engine, the robot's two wheels and two engines provide dexterous steering and sufficient drive without the burden of having to drive the complex tow.


Mechanical legs have made great breakthroughs in practice, but actual production will be more complicated and difficult. There are some simple variants made of metal wire legs and 6 legs. Although such a solution is less flexible, these robots are easier to make.


Like the power correction circuit, there must be a motor controller module in most machines. The sudden start and stop of the motor is actually caused by the sudden power supply, and the control center is loaded with far more power than it can withstand. So part of the robot is used to manage the motor, and it is also responsible for protecting other electronic components from idling.


2, indicator light


Most robots have many miniature lights on them. Light-emitting diodes can be used to indicate power status, motor operating conditions, sensor detection and decision making. This indication of state can greatly simplify the process of error correction and design optimization.


Light-emitting diodes are very simple to apply. They are low in price, light in weight, and do not generate heat when touched, and the color of LEDs currently produced is increasing.


2, a variety of different parts


Generally speaking, several support chips will aggregate the interfaces and then connect them to a microcontroller. The support chip can also perform pre-processing functions on signals (such as signals from sensors and buttons), which can reduce the workload of the control hub.


At the same time, we also need many other components, such as circuits, connectors, capacitors, resistors, diodes and other electronic components have an important role in the overall connection of the circuit, not detailed here.


Five, the fuselage


Unless you are making a jellyfish or paper bag robot, all parts must be connected to the same basic frame. Surprisingly, many robot designers don't pay enough attention to the robot's body. At the end of the day, their robots were designed to be a mess, either collapsed under the burden of their own weight, or the robot's limbs moved in a very different way.


The designed fuselage not only needs to connect the components together, but also protects the components from external forces. Unfortunately, it was finally found that the bodies of many homemade robots were too weak, their wires were hanging outside and the boards were exposed.


Another important aspect of the robotic body is its visual effect. No matter how good your robot is, the visual impact of the finished product will greatly affect the viewer's evaluation of the robot you are making.


The above is a detailed description of the five components of the robot. When we carefully assemble it as required, it becomes an artificial intelligence robot.


To assemble an artificial intelligence robot, at least the following four aspects of knowledge: electrical engineering (circuits and sensors); mechanical engineering and mechanics (gear, motor and robot skeleton); computer science (pseudo-intelligent behavior); art (expression, Design style and fun level).