The status quo of smart factory construction at home and abroad
In recent years, major economies around the world have been vigorously promoting the revival of manufacturing. Under the enthusiasm of Industry 4.0, Industrial Internet, Internet of Things, and cloud computing, many excellent manufacturing companies around the world have developed smart factory construction practices.
For example, Siemens Amberg Electronics Factory has realized the mixed production of multi-variety industrial computer; FANUC has realized the high degree of automation and intelligence of the robot and servo motor production process, and utilizes the intelligent warehouse of various intelligent manufacturing units in the workshop. Transferring materials to achieve unattended operation for up to 720 hours; Schneider Electric fully automates the electrical switch manufacturing and packaging process; Harley-Davidson USA makes extensive use of intelligent manufacturing units consisting of machining centers and robots to achieve mass customization; Mitsubishi The motor Nagoya Manufacturing Co., Ltd. adopts a new robot assembly line that combines man and machine to realize the transition from automation to intelligence, which significantly increases the output per unit of production area. The global heavy truck giant MAN has built a complete in-plant logistics system, using AGV loading. The assembled components and the whole vehicle facilitate the flexible adjustment of the assembly line and the establishment of the material supermarket, with remarkable results.
At present, China's manufacturing enterprises are facing tremendous transformation pressure. On the one hand, factors such as rising labor costs, overcapacity, fierce competition, and increasing customer demand for personalization have forced manufacturing companies to shift from low-cost competitive strategies to differentiated competitive advantages. At the factory level, manufacturing companies face the difficulty of recruiting workers and the lack of professional technicians. It is necessary to reduce staff and increase efficiency, and it is urgent to promote the construction of smart factories. On the other hand, emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things, collaborative robots, additive manufacturing, predictive maintenance, and machine vision are rapidly emerging, providing a good technical support for manufacturing companies to promote smart factory construction. Coupled with the strong support of the state and local governments, more and more large and medium-sized enterprises in various industries have started the journey of smart factory construction.
China's automotive, home appliances, rail transit, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, equipment manufacturing, home and other industries to the automation and intelligent transformation of production and assembly lines, as well as the establishment of a new smart factory demand is very strong, emerged Haier, the United States, Dongguan A model for the construction of smart factories such as Jinsheng and Shangpin.
For example, the Haier Foshan drum washing machine factory can realize the configuration, production and assembly according to the order, adopt the highly flexible automatic unmanned production line, widely apply the precision assembly robot, adopt the MES system full-order order execution management system, and trace the whole process through RFID. Machine interconnection, machine interconnection and human-machine interconnection; Shangpin Home Delivery has realized a full range of individual customization from style design to construction size, and established a highly intelligent production and processing control system to meet the special needs of consumers' personalized customization. Dimensional and structural cutting requirements of the plate; Dongguan Jinsheng fully adopted the domestic machining center, domestic CNC system and domestic industrial software, realized the automatic collection of equipment data and workshop networking, established the digital mapping model of the factory (DigitalTwin), and constructed Smart factory for mobile phone case processing.
However, there are still many problems and misunderstandings in the construction of smart factories in China's manufacturing enterprises:
1 blindly purchase automation equipment and automated production lines. Many manufacturers still believe that the promotion of smart factories is automation and robotization, blindly pursue "black light factories", promote the transformation of single-station robots, promote machine substitution, and can only process or assemble a single product rigid automated production line. Only pay attention to the purchase of high-end CNC equipment, but it is not equipped with the corresponding software system.
2 Automatic collection of device data and workshop networking have not been implemented. Enterprises do not require open data interfaces when purchasing equipment. Most of the equipment cannot automatically collect data and does not implement workshop networking. At present, all major automation manufacturers have their own industrial bus and communication protocols, and the application of the OPCUA standard is still not popular.
3 The factory operation layer is still a black box. In the operation of the factory, there is still lack of information system support. The workshop is still a black box. It is difficult to trace the whole process in the production process. The manufacturing BOM data and working hour data closely related to production management are also inaccurate.
4 equipment performance is not high. Production equipment is not fully utilized, and the health status of the equipment is not effectively managed, often resulting in unplanned downtime due to equipment failure, affecting production.
5 There are still a large number of isolated islands of informationization and automation. The construction of intelligent factories involves suppliers in the fields of intelligent equipment, automation control, sensors, industrial software, etc., and integration is very difficult. Many enterprises not only have many information islands, but also many automation islands. The automated production lines are not planned in a unified way, and the transfer lines need to be transferred between production lines.
The reason is that smart manufacturing and smart factories cover many fields, the system is extremely complicated, and the company still lacks a deep understanding. Under such circumstances, manufacturing companies cannot rush to advance and engage in a "great leap forward" so as not to cause the investment of enterprises to float. We should rely on the consulting service organization with practical experience, combined with the IT, automation and lean teams within the company, and actively participate in the high-level, according to the company's products and production processes, do a good job of demand analysis and overall planning, based on this, steadily advance, in order to obtain Effective.